Learning a new languages was always going to be a challenge. Three months on I have worked through the greetings, introductions, numbers and times. I have been introduced to the various noun classes (Ki-Vi, Ji -Ma, M-Mi and N class) which are used to indicate singular and plural and the various tenses (present, present irregular, present regular, relevant past, irrelevant past, sooner than expected, expected), negatives, Mahali class 1 and 2 (all about placement of objects), there’s a lot to learn.
The lessons are good but retention is hard especially with so many beginnings and endings to the verbs and nouns. Sometimes I wonder if I’ll ever get there.
Basic sentence structure consists of a subject prefix based on the noun class a tense marker and a verb, all very different to English.
Personal pronouns are indicated by a prefix ahead of the verb.
There is a logic to it all and unlike English all letters have a consistent meaning, of course teaching in a n English environment does not help. Even so it is right to get some understanding of Kiswahili and attempt to make some conversation with Tanzanians and understand something of their culture.
Most recently I have been looking at Mahali class which is all is out placement of objects (inside, on or in the vicinity of another object given a suffix of -ni)
So if you wanted to know where the cup was specifically (e.g in a cupboard) you might say
Kikombe kimo kabatini (the cup is in the cupboard)
alternatively you might say
Kabatini mna kikombe (the cupboard is where the cup is)
The mo / mna indicating inside
The plural (cups) would be
Vikombe vimo kabatini (Cups are are in the cupboard)
Kabatini mna vikombe (the Cupboard is where the cups are)
If you wanted a more general location e.g. The cup is somewhere in the house (indicated by ko / kuna)
Kikombe kiko nyumbani
or the house has a cup in it somewhere
Nyumbani kuna Kikombe
Vikombe viko nyumbani
Nyumbani kuna vikombe
If the cup where specifically on the table (indicated by po / pana)
Kikombe kipo mezani
Or the table is specifically where the cup is
Mezani pana kikombe
Vikombe vipo mezani
Mezani pana vikombe
The negative is indicated by the prefix ha-
Kabatini hamna vikombe
Nyumbani hakuna vikombe
Mezani hapana vikombe
mna become hamna
kuna becomes hakuna
pana becomes hapana
This phraseology is how you end up with the phrase Hakuna Matata (no worries – think Lion King). In other words in general there are no problems
It is also the origin of two words used for no in Swahili – hapana and hamna.
Hamna is considered polite e.g. Hamna pesa meaning “I have no money inside (my wallet /bag /pocket etc)”.
Hapana pesa would be very rude meaning something like “look here I have no money”
It’s all very interesting